Apply These Secret WAYS TO Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. When you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is essential that it have exactly the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

infant loss Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas before the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more prone to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing up process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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